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Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) 10. 3 - старонка 22

Light-Weight, High-Gain Receive/Transmit Navigation/Communication

Antennas

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a light-weight, foldable/collapsible antenna to take advantage of the high-gain and shield from sources of interference for GPS user equipment and communication applications.

DESCRIPTION: Interference and/or signal attenuation due to foliage, buildings, etc., cause loss of performance in the Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment (UE). The loss of performance manifests itself in longer time-to-first-fix, higher bit-error-rate for data demodulation, etc. A high-gain antenna, such as a parabolic dish, pointed up into the sky at most any azimuth and elevation could have enough beamwidth to view at least one GPS satellite. Once one satellite is acquired with the high-gain antenna, then subsequent satellites can be acquired faster or with higher interference using the standard antenna on the UE based on the acquisition results from the first satellite. The high-gain antenna could also be used to transmit the user’s location to communications satellites or equipment, or otherwise be used for other communications applications. To make carrying the antenna palatable to a person on foot, the antenna must be light-weight and compact. Designs to achieve these goals are also required.

PHASE I: The offerer will determine what antenna beamwidth is necessary to view at least one GPS satellite when an antenna with that beamwidth is pointed at almost any azimuth and elevation. Also, antenna designs must be light-weight (under 6 oz), foldable/collapsible and achieve the desired gain (4 dBic without ground plane) and beamwidth.

PHASE II: Build five prototype antennas and demonstrate their use with GPS UE in both high interference and low signal strength situations. Also demonstrate the ability to use the antennas for communication.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military search and rescue operations in high interference environments.

Commercial Application: Civil search and rescue operations in high interference environments.

REFERENCES:

1. Son, W. I., W. G. Lim, N. Q. Lee, S. B. Min, and J. W. Yu, "Design of Compact Quadruple Inverted-F Antenna with Circular Polarization for GPS Receiver," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Volume PP, Issue 99, DOI 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044344, page 1, 2010.

2. Shilo, S.A., and Yu B. Sidorenko, "Variable Beam Width MMW Band Antenna," Physics and Engineering of Mocrowaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves and Workshop on Terahertz Technologies, MSMW "07, The Sixth International Kharkov Symposium, Vol. 2, DOI 10.1109/MSMW.2007.4294781, page 696-698, 2007.

3. Hoque, M., M. Hamid, A. Rahman, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "Radiation pattern of a parabolic reflector antenna from near field measurements of a coupled reflector," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, AP-S Digest, DOI 10.1109/APS.1988.94286, Vol. 13, pp. 1110-1113, 1988.

4. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/7423609/description.html.

5. Bernhard, J. T., N. Chen, M. Feng, C. Liu, P. Mayes, E. Michielssen, R. Wang, and L. G. Chorosinski, "Electronically reconfigurable and mechanically conformal apertures using low-voltage MEMS and flexible membranes for space-based radar applications," Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2001.

KEYWORDS: GPS receiver antenna, communication antenna, compact antenna design, foldable antenna design, high gain antenna, GPS time-to-first-fix (TTFF), data bite error rate, GPS signal acquisition, reconfigurable antenna, extendable antenna, flexible structures

AF103-091 TITLE: Miniaturized Star Tracker for Cubesats

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop flight-ready cubesat star tracker, complete with onboard-processing capability and plug-and-play interfaces.

DESCRIPTION: Space weather missions have become increasingly dependent on small spacecraft, in particular the cubesat of volume 4” x 4” x 4”. The small size and low mass of the cubesat makes accurate attitude and location information problematic. Existing star camera systems are large, heavy and costly, incompatible with the cubesat concept. Given the restrictions, it is imperative that a star tracking system be developed which will (1) satisfy the size limitations; and (2) provide precise orientation and attitude information in real time. This SBIR requires development of a cubesat star camera of maximum size = two-unit (2U) cubesat, which can provide a precision better than 0.02º attitude determination, with maximum mass = 1kg, power requirements = 2W, and onboard real-time processing capability.

It is also required that a prototype star tracker be delivered to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), suitable for possible flight as a test project, after the end of the contract period. The unit must be compatible with plug-and-play interface technology for rapid integration into Air Force systems.

Space Plug and Play Avionics (SPA) Specifications, 2005-2008, are available upon request by U.S. persons. Requests should be made to AFRL/RVSE, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 or by emailing the technical POC of this SBIR topic.

PHASE I: Develop design of rugged, flight-ready star camera, satisfying the requirements on size, mass, power and precision.

PHASE II: Develop and build a prototype star tracker, complete with on-board real-time processing capability and plug-and-play interface technology. Unit is to be delivered to AFRL at the end of the contract period.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Space missions are increasingly dependent on small satellites. This star tracker will be an essential part of future USAF spaceborne technology.

Commercial Application: As with the military, there is increasing use of nanosats and cubesats in government and commercial space projects. This technology will be in high demand in future missions.

REFERENCES:

1. Shumway, A., Whiteley, M., Peterson, Jim, Young, Q., Hancock, J., and Peterson, James, “Digital Imaging Space Camera (DISC) Design and Testing,” 21th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, UT, SSC07-VIII-2., August 2007.

2. Puig-Suari, J., Turner, C., and Ahlgren, W., “Development of the standard CubeSat deployer and a CubeSat class picosatellite,” presented at P-302, IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 2001.

3. Toorian, A., CubeSat Design Specification Revision 9, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, 2005.

KEYWORDS: star tracker, cubesat, plug and play, on-board processing, flight ready

AF103-092 TITLE: Radiation-Hardened, Analog-to-Digital Converter with High-Bit Precision

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a radiation-hardened, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with high-bit precision for use in low bit error rate (BER) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) demodulator applications.

DESCRIPTION: In order to bring the best affordable satellite communications support to the battlefield, the Air Force is pursuing finding innovative ways to use commercial technologies for bandwidth-efficient modulation alternatives, like QAM, to maximize satellite communications (SATCOM) capacity in the face of limited spectrum availability. Processing of these higher modulation waveforms will require greater fidelity during digital conversion under the constraints of space (limited available power, restricted temperature control and heat removal strategies, and moderate to severe radiation environments), and the Air Force seeks the development of an ADC with requisite conversion fidelity for low bit error rate demodulation of bandwidth efficient waveforms like QAM. The objective of this topic is to solicit innovative approaches to develop a high-precision, radiation-hardened ADC for 16-QAM waveform processing, with a minimum 2 GSPS (giga-samples per second) conversion rate, with minimal device power consumption, Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of at least 10 bits, accuracy of +/- .5 LSB, linearity of .5 LSB, gain flatness 80 dB, operating temperature range –40 to +80 deg C., and total dose tolerance of at least 300 krad(Si). State-of-the-art for ADCs meet only a fraction of these parameters. An understanding of the effects of other radiation threats (dose rate, single particle (protons, cosmic rays)) should be described to demonstrate understanding.

PHASE I: Research bandwidth-efficient SATCOM ADC requirements and develop an innovative ADC design consistent with high-data-rate, high-effective-resolution bandwidth. Investigate transition path to radiation hardened design implementation as described above. Validate design performance through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Fabricate ADC prototype and characterize for linearity, throughput, power consumption, operating temperature range, and total dose radiation effects.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: The technology could benefit a broad range of military satellite applications, such as the Transformational Satellite Program and the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF) program.

Commercial Application: The technology could also benefit commercial satellite programs such as Globalstar™ and Iridium™.

REFERENCES:

1. Guan, Zhi-yuan, and S. N. Hulyalkar, “Bit-Precision requirements on the A/D converter in a QAM receiver,” IEEE Tran. Consumer electronics vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 692-695, Aug. 1993.

2. Wilson, Stephen G., “Digital Modulation and Coding,” Prentice Hall, 1996.

3. Tan, L. K., J. S. Putnam, and et al, “70-Mb/s Variable Rate 1024 QAM Cable Receiver IC with Integrated 10-b ADC and FEC Decoder,” IEEE J.S.S.C, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 2205-2218, Dec. 1998

KEYWORDS: analog to digital converter, bit precision, QAM, demodulation, SNR loss, bit error rate, ADC, rad hard electronics, space electronics

AF103-093 TITLE: Radiation-Hardened, Resistive Random Access Memory

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) device suitable for long-term geosynchronous satellite missions.

DESCRIPTION: In order to provide future generations of warfighters with the best affordable satellite communications, the Air Force seeks research towards a new generation of high density nonvolatile memory devices suitable for use in military and commercial satellite applications. Recent research in oxide film resistive random access memory (RRAM) suggests that it has several attributes, such as relatively fast switching times, and relatively low programming voltage levels, along with satisfactory endurance and retention, that make it attractive for use as a next-generation, non-volatile data storage device. In order to find use in future space missions; however, RRAM must be shown capable of withstanding the full range of natural and manmade threats encountered in a long-term, geosynchronous space environment. This includes tolerance for total ionizing dose radiation effects, transient radiation effects, including heavy ions and gamma radiation, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects. Goals of this research include non volatile memory device with a single low voltage supply (less than or equal to 3.3 V), extended operating temperature range (-40 to +80 deg. C), a minimum of 20 years data retention, endurance of at least 1 billion read/write cycles, access time of 10 ns or less, total dose radiation tolerance greater than 1 Mrad (Si), transient dose radiation tolerance of at least 1E9 rads/sec and single event effect tolerance for heavy ions greater or equal than 60 MeV.

PHASE I: Investigate design architecture trade-offs and process integration issues concerned with developing reprogrammable, nonvolatile memory RRAM devices. Develop preliminary design for reprogrammable, nonvolatile RRAM, and validate through modeling and simulation.

PHASE II: Develop one or more prototype RRAM devices and characterize for endurance, retention, radiation tolerance from total dose and single event effects, storage density, power consumption, and access time.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Military applications for RRAM include avionics, satellite payloads and terminals.

Commercial Application: Commercial applications for RRAM include consumer electronics, automobiles and commercial space.

REFERENCES:

1. I. G. Baek, et al., Highly Scalable Nonvolatile resistive memory using simple binary oxide driven by asymmetric unipolar voltage pulses, Tech. Dig. IEDM (2005), p. 750.

2. A. Chen, S. Haddad, Y.C. Wu, T.N. Fang, Z. Lan and S. Avanzino et al., Non-volatile resistive switching for advanced memory applications, IEDM Tech Dig (2007), p. 746.

3. Sánchez, M. J., M. J. Rozenberg, and I. H. Inoue, "A mechanism for unipolar resistance switching in oxide nonvolatile memory devices," Applied Physics Letters, Volume 91, Issue 25, id. 252101 (3 pages) 2007.

4. "Transition-metal-oxide-based resistance-change memories," IBM Journal of Research and Development Archive, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages: 481-492: 2008 ISSN:0018-8646, July 2008.

KEYWORDS: nonvolatile memory, resistive random access memory, endurance, retention, data storage, access time

AF103-094 TITLE: Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System

(GNSS)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design and test innovative Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas (CRPAs) for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).

DESCRIPTION: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes a modernized Global Positioning System (GPS), the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. At present, most systems are GPS only, but new GNSS receivers will use some of the additional GNSS systems becoming available to improve accuracy and availability. Polarization of GNSS signals is Right-Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). A Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) is an antenna which provides a means to electronically control and change the received antenna pattern. Existing CRPAs are typically small arrays, whereby the pattern can be controlled by changing the phase and amplitude from each radiating element by using digital beam forming (DBF), but the offeror is not limited to this approach to design a CRPA. The CRPAs are used for receive-only. The GNSS frequencies span from 1164 MHz to 1300 MHz and also 1559 MHz to 1611 MHz. The CRPA should be able to provide a good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from the GNSS satellites at all above frequencies. This is achieved by maximizing gain towards the satellites, while minimizing antenna losses before the low-noise amplifier (LNA). Cross-polarization response should be minimized to reduce multipath. A ground plane is sometimes used but not always available. The above frequency bands should be covered at all times, no additional frequency data will be available from the receiver for tuning adjustments. The antenna will not be used from 1300 MHz-1559 MHz, so the gain at those frequencies is of no interest, it can be high or low.

The CRPA will be used to mitigate or null interfering signals such as jammers or multipath, while maintaining good reception and S/N for the GNSS satellite signals from the rest of the sky. The jammer polarization is usually approximately RHCP. The bandwidth of nulls created by the CRPA should be able to mitigate interferers and improve S/N over the bandwidths of the GNSS signals. The CRPAs may also be used to increase gain or S/N in the direction of the GNSS satellites, or for direction finding of an interfering source. In addition, the CRPA should also be capable of providing a “Reference” or omni pattern which maximizes RHCP gain over all of the sky from zenith down to about 5 degrees elevation. For the "Reference" pattern, the RHCP pattern would ideally be uniformly as high gain as possible over that region of the sky, at all the GNSS frequencies.

The antenna electronics (AE) or DBF or computational algorithms to use the CRPA antenna are not required to be developed under this topic. Radio frequency (RF) connectors for interfacing the CRPA to the AE should be included in the design.

The CRPA size should not exceed 14” diameter and 4” height; lower height is strongly preferred for airborne applications. Much smaller diameter CRPAs are also of interest. Weight should be minimized. The number of antenna elements or ports or degrees of freedom (DoF) available for nulling should be 2 to 12, although 3 to 7 DoF is preferred, and 7 DoF is especially preferred.

PHASE I: Design and develop an innovative GNSS CRPA. Antenna performance should be demonstrated using electromagnetic computer modeling and/or measurements, or by some other means.

PHASE II: Prototype CRPA should be built, and performance meeting the above objectives demonstrated by measurements.

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: U.S. and allied military users will be interested in GNSS CRPAs with interference mitigation.

Commercial Application: Commercial GNSS technology is a growing industry; many next-generation receivers will include GNSS.

REFERENCES:

1. Moernaut, Gerald and Daniel Orban, “Innovation: GNSS Antennas – An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern, Polarization, and All That”. GPS World, pp. 42-48, February 2009.
2. Granger, R., P. Readman, and S. Simpson, “The Development of a Professional Antenna for Galileo”. ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, Fort Worth, TX, pp. 799-806, 26-29 September 2006.
3. ION, “GNSS Market to Grow to $6B to $8B by 2012”. GPS World, Sept.19, 2008.

4. Kaplan and Hegarty, “Understanding GPS, Principles and Applications”, 2nd Edition. Chapters 6 and 9. Artech House, 2006.

5. Ly, Hung, Paul Eyring, Efraim Traum, Huan-Wan Tseng, Kees Stolk, Randy Kurtz, Alison Brown, Dean Nathans, and Edmond Wong, "Design, imulation, and testing of a miniaturized GPS dual-frequency (L1/L2) antenna array," STAR. Vol. 44, No. 13, 5 July 2006.

KEYWORDS: GNSS, GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System, Global Positioning System, Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna, CRPA, satellite navigation systems, antenna arrays

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