.RU

part I., S - 221 religious encyclopedia

part I., S.

Clement

of

Rome, i. 201 345,

London,

1890;

F. H. Glassechrbder in

R6mischa Quar­talachrift

far

Afterthumakunde, iv. 125

eqq., v.

178;

idem, in

Hiatoriachea Jahrbuch der GOtrssapssellechaft, xi (1890), 240 266; T.

Mommsen, in

NA, xix (1894), 285 293, xxi (1896), 333 357, xxii (1897), 545 553;

SBgmaller, in

Hiatoriachea Jahrbuch der GtirresgeseUachaft, xv (1894), 802 810; F. G.

Rosenfeld, Ueber

die Kompoaition der Liter pontifualie,

Marburg,

1896; 1.

Giorgi in

Archivio della aocieth Romans di atoria patria, xx (1897,), 247

eqq.; A. Harnack, in

Sitrunpsbariehte der Berliner Akademie, 1892, pp. 761 778;

H. Griser,

Analecta Romans, Rome, 1899.



LIBER

SE%TUS. See

CANON LAW, II., 6, J 3.



LIBER VITA (DIPTYCHS):

The official register of the members of the congregation, also a list of the clergy, and others. The establishment of such a register was inseparably connected with the rise of the ecclesiastical organization. Baptism, which consummated the entrance into the congregation, occasioned at once the necessity and the right of en­rolment; death, voluntary withdrawal, or expulsion by way of discipline, caused erasure. Besides this there were special lists of the clergy and of other persons in the service or under the care of the Church. The more complicated the apparatus of ecclesiastical government and administration be­came, the more these registers increased in number and in size. A special group was formed by the lists, with the names of the spiritual and temporal rulers, which were read aloud during the supplies, tions, and also by those containing the names of persons who participated in the eucharistic offer­ings or who deserved mention for some other rea­son. These may all be included under the general designation " book of life," " book of the living," in which may be seen a connection with expressions




Libor Vitae

THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG

474



Liberins



in the Bible (of. Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8; Phil. iv. 3; Ps.

Ixix. 28). Purely external considerations gave rise

to the opposite designation " book of the dead,"

originally referring only to those whose memory

was recalled at the communion service. The de­

velopment of worship, both in the Eastern and in

the Western Church, combined with the growing

length of the lists, led to the abandonment or the

restriction of the older custom.

As to the form of this register, the Greek name

diptychon implies a connection with the wax tab­

lets used by the ancients. Two or more of them

were bound together, in the form of a book, the

exterior being of some firm material and forming

the covers, At the same period papyrus rolls were

also used. These covers were probably in most

cases of wood. Nevertheless, in the fourth cen­

tury and probably earlier, ivory was used and or­

namented with reliefs.

Probably the oldest (fourth to fifth century?)

Christian example which has been preserved is the

Carrand diptych in Florence with the naming of the

beasts of the field by Adam; but, in general, scenes

from the New Testament predominate.

The use of diptychs continued in the East far

into the Middle Ages, and the same is true of the

West, especially in the period of Carlovingian art.

Some of the diptych tablets have been preserved

as ornamental parts of book covers; for the artistic

ecclesiastical bindings of the Middle Ages were in­

spired by the diptychs.

From these diptychs, with religious representa­

tions, in ecclesiastical use must be distinguished

those of the officials, of the emperors, and of pri­

vate persons. These should not, however, pass un­

noticed since some of them show Christian types,

while others were taken for ecclesiastical use and

were altered for that purpose. In this group the

first place is occupied by the diptych of the Consul

Anicius Probus, from the year 406, in the possession

of the Cathedral of Aosta. One tablet shows the

emperor holding in his left hand the imperial orb

with a winged Victory, and in his right the labarum,

inscribed with the words " In the name of Christ

conquer thou ever." Another important example

is the Barberini diptych in the Louvre, with the

equestrian figure of Justinian. On one leaf of a

diptych in Monza the costume of the consul has

been changed into a priestly vestment and the head

has been given the tonsure; an inscription has also

been added indicating that the figure is that of

Gregory the Great. On the other leaf, the original

figure is untouched and it has been given another

meaning only by means of the inscription " King

David." There is in Bologna a private diptych

Christianized by the addition of an inscription des­

ignating the principal figure as Peter and a bust

above this figure as Mark.

It may also be remarked that the various forms

of the altar piece are called diptych, triptych, etc.

VICTOR SCHULTZE.

Bn3LI00RAPHY: Earlier works still of value are: C. A. Salig,

Ds diptycAu veterum, Halle, 1731; A. F. Gori, Thesaurus

vsterum diptYchorum, 3 vols., Florence, 1759; J. O. West­

wood, Description of the Ivories, Ancient and Mediaroal,

in Ohs South Kensington Museum, London, 1876; R.

Garrucci, Scoria delta ante erietiana6 vol. vi., Prato, 1880;

T. G. Brightman, Liturgies Eastern and Western, glossary

s. v. " diptychs," Oxford, 1896; H. Graeven, Friahchrist­tiche and mittelalterliche Elfenbeinloerke, Rome, 1898 aqq.; G. Rietschl, Lehrbuch der Liturpik, i. 231 sqq., Berlin, 1900; DCA, i. 560 eqq.; and for the secular use, W. Smith, W. Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, i. 643 644, London, 1890.

LIBERATUS: Deacon at Antioch and ecclesias­tical writer; fl. about 560. He was the author of a work which is an important source for the his­tory of the ecclesiastical controversies of the fifth and sixth centuries, Breviarum causce Nestoric­norum et Eutychianomm (ed. J. Gamier, Paris, 1675; reprinted in MPL, lxviii. 963 1052). The book utilizes the history of the preceding century to dem­onstrate that Justinian's condemnation of the Three Chapters (see THREE CHAPTER CONTRO­vERsy) is false and untenable. The history begins with the ordination of Nestorius, and comes down approximately to 560. The date is shown by the mention of the death of Pope Vigilius (555) and by the fact that at the close of the last chapter Patri­arch Theophilus of Alexandria (d. 566) is referred to as yet alive. The work mentions as sources the Historia ecclesiastics tripartite of Cassiodorus (q.v.), Gesta synodalia, Epastolct= sanctorum patrum, a Gesta de nomine Acacii of Pope Gelasius I. (q.v.), and finally a Grcecum Alexandrite scriptum, which some have identified with the ecclesiastical history of Zacharias Scholasticus (q.v.). The style is concise and not always clear, the tone judicious, and the general treatment trustworthy, notwithstanding its partizan attitude as against the Monophysites.

G. HRtGER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fabricius Harles, Bibliotheca Graca xii.

685 692, Hamburg, 1809; DCB, iii. 716 717; :iL, vii. 1944; Ceillier, Auteurs eacres. xi. 303 305.

LIBERIA, tai bi'ri a: A republic on the west coast of Africa, having a coast line of about 350 miles from Sierra Leone to the French colony of the Ivory Coast, and stretching inland to a dis­tance in some cases of 200 miles. The total area is about 45,000 square miles; the population is es­timated at 2,000,000, all of African race, the few whites being considered foreigners. It was founded as a colony in 1822 by free blacks sent out by the American Colonization Society. According to the constitution adopted in 1847, when Liberia was de­clared an independent government, electors must be of negro blood and owners of land. The Amer­ico Liberians, numbering about 20,000, hold the chief power, the native races, while not excluded from the franchise, tang little part in political life. At one time it was thought that the Americo. Liberians were dying out, but intermixture with the more civilized aborigines and some immigra­tion from the west has strengthened them. They are all Protestants, connected chiefly with the Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Lutheran Churches. There is a Roman Catholic Mission, statistics for which are not available. The earliest missionary work, apart from that connected with the Colonization Society, was begun by the Meth­odist Episcopal Church in 1831, followed, by the Presbyterian in 1833, the Protestant Episcopal in 1836, and the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in 1859. The Presbyterian Board of For 




475 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ziber Vitas



Liberius



eign Missions withdrew in 1899, transferring all its

property and churches to the presbytery of West

Africa. Educational work has been pushed by all

these Churches, some of their schools being of high

grade. Apart from these, elementary schools are

numerous, and there are a few of secondary grade.

Considerable attention i8 paid to industrial train­

ing, notably in the Lutheran Muhlenberg Mission.

It was in Liberia that the Methodist Bishop Taylor

inaugurated his scheme for African industrial mis­

sions. The fact that only a comparatively narrow

strip of land along the coast is effectively adminis­

tered, and that the inland territory is occupied by

some of the fiercest African tribes, has given much

prominence to the missionary enterprises in the

country. The work is conducted for the most part

by the negroes, on account of the climate and the

general type of life, although there is a considerable

force of white missionaries on the coast. The four

societies report over 5.000 communicant members,

nearly one hundred schools with 5,000 pupils, a con­

siderable portion of whom are from the inland tribes.

See AFRICA, II. EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

See the literature under

AYRICA.



LIBERIUS, lai bi'ri us: Pope 352 366. He was

of Roman birth and parentage, was the choice of

both factions in the Arian controversy and of the

Emperor Constantius as successor to Julius I., and

was probably consecrated May.17, 352 (cf. LZer

pontifimlis, ed. Duchesne, p. ccl.). The favor of

Constantius was due to his purpose,

First steadily entertained since he had be­

Period, come the sole ruler (353), to achieve

till His the peace of the Church by disavowal

Exile. of Athanasius and abolition of the

Nicene Creed (see AwAmSM, § 5), a

result. which obviously hinged on the type of occu­

pant of the Roman see. At a synod at Rome con­

vened by Liberius, the majority of the bishops de­

clared for Athanasius; but, at the synod called by

the emperor at Arles (353), the pope's delegates,

Vincentius and Marcellus of Campania, as a peace

measure, consented to support the decision of the

East against Athanasius. Liberius, dissatisfied

with the action of his own representatives, ad­

dressed a letter of urgent remonstrance to the em­

peror (Epist. ad Constantium), and furthermore

managed to engage Eusebius of Vercelhe to sup­

port him. Nevertheless, the Synod of Milan (355)

completed the victory over Athanasius, and the

bishops who had continued steadfast were driven

into exile. The same fate awaited the pope unless

he yielded. The imperial eunuch Eusebius, who

came to confer with him at Rome, attempted to

move him by argument to subscribe adversely to

Athanasius and to accept ecclesiastical fellowship

with his opponents. Liberius resisted, possibly

relying upon the sentiments of the Roman popu­

lace, which ran counter to the imperial endeavors

(Ammianus Marcellinus, XV., vii. 10). Hereupon

the pope was apprehended by night by the prefect

of the city and removed to the imperial court. In

an audience with the emperor, reported by Theo­

doret (Hilt. eccl.; ii. 13; NPNF, 2 ser., iii. 77 79),

he made a spirited appeal for general acceptation

of the Nicene Creed, recall of the exiles, and con 

vention of a synod in Alexandria to examine the charges against Athanasius. The one consequence was his own exile to Beraea in Thrace, in 355, when Constantius had the Roman archdeacon Felix con­secrated as pope (see FELIx II.).

The new pope encountered great opposition, not because of any doubt as to his personal orthodoxy, but rather because people believed him tainted with irregular ordination and ecclesiastical fellowship with the contrary party. While the emperor was in Rome in May, 357, in answer to an appeal by some ladies for the return of Liberius (Theodoret, II., xiv.), the emperor let it appear that negotia­tions with the exiled pope had led to Acceptance the desired result. Liberius did not

of Homoi  return

to his congregation, however,

ousianism. till the summer of 358. The emperor

wished that he and Felix superintend

the Church in common; but this was found impos­

sible, and Felix had to yield. Various explana­

tions have been given of the emperor's change of

mind. Some speak of a collapse on the part of

Liberius, and assert that he reversed his dogmatic

position. But this is not borne out by the report

of Sozomen (Hilt. eccd., iv. 15), who alone reports

on the subject. The sole fact apparent is that,

after somewhat prolonged negotiations, in the spring

of 358 Liberius expressed his willingness to waive

the term homoousios. He had been convinced that

the

formula at issue was liable

to misunderstand­

ing, and declared himself in harmony with the the­

ory of the Homoiousians, according to which the

Son is " like " to the Father (of like essence and

attributes). That he rejected the term homoousios,

or that he consented in any degree to the thought

of designating the Son as unlike .the Father (arh

omoios), Sozomen pronounces a malicious inven­

tion. Yet it is open to question whether the tone

of Sozomen adequately accounts for the sharp ut­

terances of Athanasius (Hiatoria Arianorum, xli.;

NPNF, 2 ser., iv. 284) and Jerome (Chronicon,

and De vir. ill., xevii.) against Liberius, in which

Athanasius states that Liberius grew languid in

exile, and subscribed in dread of threatened death,

while Jerome reproaches Liberius with heresy.

Athanasius and Jerome are supported by four let­

ters ascribed to Liberius, preserved in the so called

Fragmenta ex opera historico of Hilary of Poitiers;

if these letters are genuine, their contents put the

result in a light unfavorable to the pope, showing

that Liberius acquiesced in the condemnation of

Athanasius and accepted a homoian statement,

the second Sirmian formula of 357. But the gen­

uineness of the letters is doubtful, since it is almost

universally conceded that the four letters are not to

be separated one from the others, in which case the

weight of evidence turns against the genuineness

of all the letters by the fact that certain particu­

lars in one of the letters (the one which begins:

Studem pact) totally contradict well attested his­

tory. There is the possibility that during his exile,

under the stress of constant pressure, Liberius may

have used some utterances which seemed to give

occasion to the charge against him. But that he

directly belied his earlier position can be asserted

only on the ground of doubtful documents.




Liberilu Liberty

THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG

Liberiua took no part in the Synod of Ariminum, 359. Several years elapse without note of him in public life. In 363, however, he put forth a brief (Epist. ad cathohcos episcopos Italim) dispensing

pardon to all those who repented of Later Life; their action at Ariminum and re 

Achieve  nounced Arian doctrine. These terms ments. indeed were not agreeable to a more

austere school of ecclesiastics, even at

Rome; and the resultant opposition led to cleav­

ages which were anything but salutary (see HILA­

Rius; and LUCIFER OF CALARIS). In 366, as the

representative of orthodoxy, the pope accorded

fraternal reception to the envoys of the Macedo­

nians (see MACEDONIUS AND THE MACEDONIAN SECT)

of Asia Minor, on the ground of subscription to the

Nicene Creed; and returned greetings of peace to

those who had authorized their errand (Epist. ad

universes Orientis orthodoxos episcopos). After the

death of Felix (Nov. 22, 365); Liberius readmitted

the clerics of his party to their former stations.

His death (Sept. 24, 366) nevertheless gave the sig­

nal for fierce factional conflicts, accompanied by

horrible bloodshed (see URsINus). According to

the Liber pontif calls, Liberius was laid to rest in

the Cemetery of Priscilla, along the Via Salaria.

It is hardly probable that the poem of eulogy dis­

covered by De Rossi, on the subject of an unnamed

bishop, refers to Liberius (De Rossi, in Bulletino di

Archeologia Cristiana, 4th ser., vol. ii., 1883, pp. 5­

59); but rather to Martin I. (cf. Funk, Kirchenge­

schichtliche Abhandlungen, i. 391 420, Paderborn,

1887). Liberius created a lasting memorial for

himself at Rome by founding the Basilica Liberians

(Santa Maria Maggiore), which, even to day, is

important historically in the office for Christ's na­

tivity and the season of Advent (cf. H. Usener, Reli­

gionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, i. 266 293, Bonn,

1889.) It was probably here in the year 354 that

the birth of Christ was celebrated for the first time

on Dec. 25. So late as the preceding year Liberius

had consecrated Marcellina, sister of Ambrose, as a

nun on Jan. 6, still observed as the day of the nativ­

ity. The pope's address delivered on this occasion

was preserved by Ambrose in a free transcript (De

vargine, iii. 1 aqq.). In the Martyrologium Hierony­

miartum. Liberius is celebrated on September 23;

but his name does not appear in the Martyrologium

Romanum. Ever since the sixth century his repu­

tation has suffered distortion through apocryphal

tradition, exhibiting him in league with Conatan­

tius as a bloody persecutor of the true faith; while

Felix is portrayed as a holy martyr (cf. J. J. I.

von DSllinger: Die Papstfabeln des Mittelalters, ed.

Friedrich, pp. 126 145, Munich, 1890; Eng. transl.,

of first ed., Fables Respecting the Popes of the Middle

Ages, New York, 1872). G. KRtGER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lfber pontiftCalis, ed. Duchesne, i pp cxx.­

cxxvii., ccl. 207 210, Paris, 1886, ed. Mommsen in MOH,

(fast. poet. Rom., i (1898)77 79; Jaff6, Regesta, i. 32 35;

B. Jung sum, Diaeertationes selects, ii. 31 33, Regens­

burg, 1881; J. Langen, Geechichte der r6fniechen Kirche,

i. 460 494, Bonn, 1881• G. Kroger, Lucifer con Calaris,

pp. 12 eqq., Leipsic, 1886; H. M. Gwatkin, Studies of

Arianiam, pp 192 sqq., Cambridge, 1900; C. de Feis,

Storia di Liberw papa a deUo sciama set Seminariani,

Rome, 1894; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, i.

108 109, London, 1894; T. Mommsen, in Deutade Zeit 

schrift far GeacAichta and Wiaeenaehaft, i (1897), 167 179;

Hefele, Conciliengeechiehte, i. 647 eqq., 681 eqq., Eng•

tranal., i. 199 sqq.; Bower, Popes, i 59 82; Milman,

Latin Christianity, 1.102 108. Very recently the genuine­

ness of the four letters of Liberius has been maintained by

L. Duchesne, in Wangea d'histoire et d'arcbUogie, xxviii

(1908), 31 78, and opposed by A. Wilmart, in Revue BJn6­

didine, xxiv (1907), 293317, and by F. savio, Nuovi

Studi auUa questions di Papa Liberio, Rome, 1909.

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