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1. Which minerals listed in the table are elements? - Leonard Bernstein • Martin Schachter • Alan Winkler • Stanley Wolfe


1.

Which minerals listed in the table are elements?



2.

What elements do pyrite and magnetite have in common?



3.

Which minerals fracture?



4.

Which minerals have a metallic luster?



5.

What are the two hardest minerals listed?



6.

What property would be most useful in distinguishing between black hematite and magnetite?



7.

List the minerals in order form softest to hardest.



8.

Why might streak not be a useful property for distinguishing between quartz and corundum?

Critical Thinking

Answer each of the following in complete sentences.

1.

Why do you think it is important to test more than one physical property of a mineral, in order to identify it?



2.

If you were going to buy a piece of gold jewelry, what carat of gold would you choose? Why?



3.

Why would the acid test not be useful when identifying a diamond?



4.

Glass has a hardness of about 6. Which minerals on Moh's scale will scratch glass?



5.

Explain how you would test an unknown min­eral to see if it was magnetite.



Finding Out More

.................



1. Using library references, find out where urani­um, sulfur, halite, aluminum, iron, and gold deposits are located. Draw a map of the world. Create a legend that identifies each kind of deposit. Show the locations of each kind of deposit on your map.



W

2. Classify: Using library references, find out what is meant by the following terms: silicates, carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, halides, and ox­ides. Write a definition for each term. Then find examples of two minerals that can be classified in each group.


r ROCKS

AND

HOW THEY FORM



>



CONTENTS

_ 4-1

What are rocks?



4-2

How are igneous rocks formed?



4-3

How are igneous rocks classified?



4-4

How are sedimentary rocks formed?



4-5

How are sedimentary rocks __

classified?



4-6

How are metamorphic rocks formed?



*,

*"*Jr

4-7

How are metamorphic rocks classified?



4-8

What is the rock cycle?



STUDY HINT

As you read each lesson in Unit 4, write the topic sentence for each paragraph in the lesson on a sheet of paper. After you complete each lesson, compare your list of topic * sentences to the Lesson Summary.



What arc rocks?



► Identify and describe the three classes of rocks.

igneous

(IG-nee-us)

rock:

rock that forms from melted minerals

metamorphic

(met-uh-MOR-fik)

rock:

rock that forms when existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure

sedimentary

(sed-uh-MEN-tuh-ree)

rock:

rock that forms from pieces of other rocks or the remains of once-living things

Figure 1



Rocks

The earth's crust is made up of many kinds of rocks. All of these different rocks are made up of one or more minerals. There are more than 2000 different minerals in the earth's crust. However, fewer than 20 of these minerals are found in most rocks.

illlll^

Identify:

What are rocks made up of?

Classification

The grouping of things that are alike is called classification (klas-uh-fih-KAY-shun). Scientists often classify things to make them easier to study. Biologists classify things as living or nonliving. Chemists classify elements as metals or nonmetals. A petrologist (puh-TRAHL-uh-jist) is a scientist who studies rocks and minerals. Petrologists classify the rocks of the earth's crust.

Illlll^

Define:

What is classification?

Classes of Rocks

Petrologists classify rocks ac-

v



cording to the way the rocks form. Some rocks form when melted minerals cool and harden. These rocks are classified as

igneous

(IG-nee-us)

rocks.

Rocks that form when pieces of minerals and rocks become cemented together, or from the remains of living things, are classified as

sedi­mentary

(sed-uh-MEN-tuh-ree)

rocks.

Other rocks form when existing rocks are slowly changed by heat and pressure. These rocks are classified as

metamorphic

(met-uh-MOR-fik)

rocks.



Illlll^

Identify:

What are the three classes of rocks?

Figure 2

Petrologists study rocks and minerals.


LESSON SUMMARY



Rocks are made up of_.

2.

There are more than_different

minerals in the earth's crust.

3.

There are_classes of rocks.

4.

Rocks are classified as igneous,_, or

metamorphic.

5.

When melted minerals cool,___rocks

form.

6.

Scientists who study rocks and minerals are___.

Find the sentence that answers each question. Then, write the sentence.



7.

How do petrologists classify rocks?

8.

What are sedimentary rocks?

9.

What is classification?

APPLY

Complete the following.



m

10.

Classify:

How would you group cars to make shopping for a new car easier?

11.

Contrast:

How do sedimentary rocks differ from metamorphic rocks?

Skill Builder.



Applying

Definitions

A

definition is an expla­nation of what a word means. The term, "meta­morphic," means "changed in form." Explain how the word "metamorphic" relates to each of the three classes of rock.

Ideas in Action.



IDEA:

When you classify, you group things based upon similar characteristics.

ACTION:

Give two examples of how you classify things in your daily life.

t*t

Career in earth science

t*t

*t

#?#t*t

#*ftt#t*t#t*t*t*t#t



GEOLOGIST



m



Do you enjoy collecting rocks or fossils? Do you like to explore new places? If you do, you may be interested in a career in geology (jee-AHL-uh-jee). Geology is the study of the features of the earth's crust. Scientists who study geology are geologists.



Geologists do many different kinds of work. Some geologists help build roads, dams, and pipelines. Some geologists find ways to clean polluted rivers or lakes. Many geologists work for oil companies. These geologists locate deposits of oil and natural gas. Other geologists study the earth's history by collecting fossils. Geologists also explore areas for valuable minerals.



To become a geologist, you must complete four years of college. After receiving a college degree, you may find employment in industry or with the government. Some geologists teach in high schools or colleges. A geologist who teaches usually must have a masters degree in science. However, to teach geology in a college, a doctoral degree usually is required.



wfc



1 &

i


► Rocks are made up of one or more minerals.

► Classification is the grouping of things that are alike in some way.

► The three classes of rocks are igneous, sedi­mentary, and metamorphic.

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