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Stages of Development of Sociology

Unit 9. History of Sociology



Text A


Stages of Development of Sociology


Sociology is rooted in the works of philosophers, including Plato (427–347 B.C.), Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), and Confucius (551–479 B.C.). Some other early scholars also took perspectives that were sociological. Chinese historian Ma Tuan-Lin developed, in the thirteenth century, a sociological history by looking at the social factors influencing history in his general knowledge encyclopedia Wen Hsien T’ung K’ao (General Study of the Literary Remains). Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) conducted studies of Arab society.
Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline. It emerged in the early 19th century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and technological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own. The impact of this exposure was varied, but for some people included the breakdown of traditional norms and customs and warranted a revised understanding of how the world works. Sociologists responded to these changes by trying to understand what holds social groups together and also explore possible solutions to the breakdown of social solidarity.
Enlightenment thinkers also helped set the stage for the sociologists that would follow. The Enlightenment was the first time in history that thinkers tried to provide general explanations of the social world. They were able to detach themselves, at least in principle, from expounding some existing ideology and to attempt to lay down general principles that explained social life. Writers of this period included a range of well-known philosophers, such as John Locke; David Hume; Voltaire; Immanuel Kant; Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu; Thomas Hobbes; and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Scholars have been interested in the nature of society throughout history. They typically focused on what the ideal society would be like. During the 1800s, however, scholars began studying how society actually is and how social arrangements actually operate (how society “works”). Armed with this knowledge, they felt they could better attack social problems and bring about social change. These scholars became the first sociologists.

^ Exercise 1. Give English equivalents:


ступени; уходить корнями; ученые; придерживаться мнения; влиять; энциклопедия общих знаний; литературные произведения; проводить исследования; в ответ; проблемы современности; подвергание воздействию; отличный (другой); воздействие; разрыв; служить оправданием; пересмотренное понимание; отвечать; держать; исследовать; решения; мыслители эпохи Просвещения; отделять; толковать; пытаться; сформулировать; общественные соглашения.

^ Exercise 2. Give a brief summary of the text.



Text B


Auguste Comte, Father of Sociology


1


The term «sociology» was coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857), in 1838 from the Latin term «socius» (companion, associate) and the Greek term «logia» (study of, speech). Comte is known as the “Father of Sociology“. He first publicly used the term in his work Positive Philosophy. Originally an engineering student, Comte became secretary and pupil to French social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825). Saint-Simon was an advocate for scientific and social reform. He advocated applying scientific principles to learn how society is organized. Armed with this knowledge, he believed he could ascertain how best to change, and govern society to address social problems such as poverty.
Comte saw history as divided into three intellectual stages. The first, or theological, stage included the medieval period in which society was seen as reflecting the will of a deity. The second, or metaphysical, stage arose during the Enlightenment and focused on forces of “nature,” rather than God, to explain social events. Comte considered his own time period the third stage, which he termed the positivistic, or scientific, stage.

2


During Comte’s lifetime, scientists were learning more about the laws that govern the physical world. For example, in the area of physics, Sir Isaac Newton (1641–1727) had developed the law of gravity. Advances were also being made in other natural sciences, such as biology. Comte felt that science could also be used to study the social world. Just as there are testable facts regarding gravity and other natural laws, Comte thought that scientific analyses could also discover the laws governing our social lives. It was in this context that Comte introduced the concept of positivism to sociology—a way to understand the social world based on scientific facts. He believed that, with this new understanding, people could build a better future. He envisioned a process of social change in which sociologists played crucial roles in guiding society.

3


Other events of that time period also influenced the development of sociology. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were times of many social upheavals and changes in the social order that interested the early sociologists. As George Ritzer notes, the political revolutions sweeping Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to a focus on social change and the establishment of social order that still concerns sociologists today. Many early sociologists were also concerned with the Industrial Revolution and rise of capitalism and socialism. Additionally, the growth of cities and religious transformations were causing many changes in people’s lives.

4


Other classical theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Karl Marx, Ferdinand Toennies, Emile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, and Max Weber. As pioneers in sociology, most of the early sociological thinkers were trained in other academic disciplines, including history, philosophy, and economics. The diversity of their trainings is reflected in the topics they researched, including religion, education, economics, psychology, ethics, philosophy, and theology. Perhaps with the exception of Marx, their most enduring influence has been on sociology, and it is in this field that their theories are still considered most applicable.

^ Exercise 3. Give English equivalents:


изобретать; компаньон (товарищ); первоначально; защитник; принципы прикладной науки; выяснять; управлять; нищета; средневековый период; отражать; божество; закон притяжения; открытия; проверяемые факты; относительно; предвидеть; решающие роди; управлять; общественные перевороты; социальное устройство; рост; быть причиной; разнообразие; продолжительный; применимый.

^ Exercise 4. Give a brief summary of the text.


Text C


Further Development of Discipline


Early founders of sociology all had a vision of using sociology. Sharing Comte’s belief, many early sociologists came from other disciplines and made significant efforts to call attention to social concerns and bring about social change. In Europe, for example, economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818–83) teamed with wealthy industrialist Friedrich Engels (1820–95) to address class inequality. Writing during the Industrial Revolution, when many factory owners were lavishly wealthy and many factory workers despairingly poor, they attacked the rampant inequalities of the day and focused on the role of capitalist economic structures in perpetuating these inequalities. In Germany, Max Weber (1864–1920) was active in politics. In France, Emile Durkheim advocated for educational reforms.
In the United States, social worker and sociologist Jane Addams (1860–1935) became an activist on behalf of poor immigrants. Addams established Chicago’s Hull House, a settlement house that provided community services such as kindergarten and day care, an employment bureau, and libraries. It also provided cultural activities, including an art gallery, music and art classes, and America’s first Little Theater. Louis Wirth (1897– 1952) built child-guidance clinics. He applied sociology to understand how social influences impacted children’s behavioral problems and how children could be helped by using this knowledge. During World War II, sociologists worked to improve the lives of soldiers by studying soldiers’ morale and attitudes as well as the effectiveness of training materials.
Sociologists are also responsible for some of the now familiar aspects of our everyday lives. For example, sociologist William Foote Whyte (1914– 2000) improved restaurant service by developing the spindles that waitstaff in many diners use to submit food orders to the kitchen (Porter 1962). Robert K. Merton (1910–2003) developed the concept of what would become the focus group, now widely used in the business world. Sociological perspectives are also the basis of many concepts and terms we use on a daily basis. Lawyers plead “extenuating circumstances” on their clients’ behalf, an acknowledgment of the sociological position that social forces influence human behavior; to talk about “fighting the system” acknowledges that social structures exist and influence our lives.
Sociologists have also been actively involved throughout the civil rights movement. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862–1931) published and spoke out against lynching. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868–1963) was involved for most of a century in studying race and social activism. Gunnar Myrdal’s An American Dilemma (1944) focused public attention on race. The voter-rights efforts of Charles G. Gomillion in the 1940s and 1950s were instrumental in the U.S. Supreme Court decision that defeated gerrymandering that had excluded almost all Macon County blacks from voting.
Today, women and persons of color continue to make important contributions to the discipline and beyond. Just among those individuals are Dorothy Smith who has changed the way sociologists think about the world and the way they conduct research. Rosabeth Moss Kanter has become an internationally renowned name in studying and improving organizations. Coramae Richey Mann has challenged the criminal-justice system and its treatment of minorities, youth, and women. William Julius Wilson has challenged thinking on class, race, and poverty. Patricia Hill Collins has increased our understanding of how race, class, and gender together all have social consequences in our world.

^ Exercise 5. Give English equivalents:


привлечь внимание; социальный проблемы; вызывать социальные изменения; работать
вместе; богатый промышленник; классовое неравенство; чрезмерно богаты; крайне бедны; безудержно растущее неравенство; сохранить навсегда; от имени; общественные службы; детские сады; дневная медицинская помощь; бюро занятости; детские клиники; поведенческие проблемы детей; боевой дух; взгляды на жизнь; штыри для накалывания чеков и заказов; штат официантов; столовые; взгляды; смягчающее обстоятельства; признание; линчевание; эффективный; «джерримандер» (махинации с избирательными округами); последствия.

Exercise 6. Give a brief summary of the text.



_________________________________Grammar__________________________________


Exercise 1. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Gerund.


1. Have you finished writing? 2. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very useful. 3. I like skiing, but my sister prefers skating. 4. She likes sitting in the sun. 5. It looks like raining. 6. My watch wants repairing. 7. Thank you for coming. 8. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of the month. 9.I had the pleasure of dancing with her the whole evening. 10. Let's go boating. 11. He talked without stopping. 12. Some people can walk all day without feeling tired. 13. Living in little stuffy rooms means breathing poisonous air. 14. Iron is found by digging in the earth. 15. There are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugar-cane. 16. Jane Eyre was fond of reading. 17. Miss Trotwood was in the habit of asking Mr. Dick his opinion.

Exercise 2. Use the Gerund with “of”.


E.g.

She thought

she would go to the country

for the week-end.
She thought

of going to the country for

the week-end
1. I thought

I would come and see you tomorrow.

2. I am thinking

that I shall go out to the country tomorrow to see my mother. 3.

What do you think you will do tomorrow? 4. I don't know now; I thought

l would go to the zoo,

but the weather is so bad that probably I shan't go. 5. I hear there are some English books at our institute book-stall now. So you are thinking

that you will buy some,

aren't you? 6. I thought I

would work in the library this evening,

but as you have come, I won't go to the library.

Exercise 3. Use the Gerund with “after”.


E.g. When she had bought

everything she needed, she went home.

After buying

everything she needed, she went home

1. After I had hesitated some minutes

whether to buy the hat or not, I finally decided that I might find one I liked better in another shop. 2.

When she had graduated from the university,

she left St. Petersburg and went to teach in her home town.

3. When he had proved that his theory was correct,

he started studying ways and means of improving the conditions of work in very deep coalmines.

4. After she took the child to the kindergarten,

she went to the library to study for her examination.

5. When he had made a thorough study of the subject,

he found that it was a great deal more important than he had thought at first.

Exercise 4. Translate into Russian paying attention to different forms of the Gerund.


1. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football. 2. She stopped coming to see us, and I wondered what had happened to her. 3. Can you remember having seen the man before? 4. She was terrified of having to speak to anybody, and even more, of being spoken to. 5. He was on the point of leaving the club, as the porter stopped him. 6. After being corrected by the teacher, the students' papers were returned to them. 7. I wondered at my mother's having allowed the journey. 8. I understand perfectly your wishing to start the work at once. 9. Everybody will discuss the event, there is no preventing it. 10. At last he broke the silence by inviting everybody to walk into the dining-room. 11. On being told the news she turned pale. 12. The place is worth visiting.

Exercise 5. Translate into Russian paying attention to different forms of the Gerund.


1. They accuse him of having robbed the house. 2. He never agreed to their going on that dangerous voyage. 3. He did not approve of her drinking so much coffee. 4. The teacher of mathematics did not approve of his pupils dreaming. 5. All the happiness of my life depends on your loving me. 6. I don't feel like seeing him. 7. I insist on being told the truth. 8. I object to his borrowing money from you. 9. I stretched out my hand to prevent her from falling. 10. My friend succeeded in translating this difficult text. 11. She suspected him of deceiving her. 12. The poor peasant thanked Robin Hood heartily for having helped him. 13. He gave up the idea of ever hearing from her. 14. We are looking forward to seeing you again. 15. She always complains of feeling unwell. 16. He persisted in trying to solve that difficult problem. 17. The cold weather prevented the girls from going for long walks. 18. Jane thought of leaving Lowood after Miss Temple's marriage.

Exercise 6. Use the Gerund in active or passive forms.


1. Why do you avoid (to speak) to me? 2. She tried to avoid (to speak) to. 3. The doctor insisted on (to send) the sick man to hospital. 4. The child insisted on (to send) home at once. 5. Do you mind ;him (to examine) by a heart specialist? 6. He showed no sign of (to recognize) me. 7. She showed no sign of (to surprise). 8. He had a strange habit of (to interfere) in other people's business. 9. I was angry at (to interrupt) every other moment. 10. He was always ready for (to help) people. 11. He was very glad of (to help) in his difficulty. 12. On (to allow) to leave the room the children immediately ran out into the yard and began (to play). 13. In (to make) this experiment they came across some very interesting phenomena. 14. The results of the experiment must be checked and re-checked before (to publish). 15. David was tired of (to scold) all the time. 16. The watch requires (to repair). 17. The problem is not worth (to discuss). 18. Jane Eyre remembered (to lock) up in the red room for (to contradict) Mrs. Reed.

Test yourself


Look through text В again and do the following tasks:



  1. Comment on the following sentences:



1. The term «sociology» was coined by Max Weber .

  1. true b)false c)no information



2. During Comte’s lifetime, scientists were learning more about the laws that govern the
physical world.

a) true b)false c)no information


3. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were times of many social upheavals and changes in
the social.

a) true b)false c)no information


4. Many early sociologists were not concerned with the Industrial Revolution.

a) true b)false c)no information


^ II. To which part of the text belongs the following sentences:



  1. Originally an engineering student, Comte became secretary and pupil to French social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon.


  1. 1 b) 2 c)3 d) 4




  1. As George Ritzer notes, the political revolutions sweeping Europe during the eighteenth

and nineteenth centuries led to a focus on social change.


  1. 1 b) 2 c)3 d) 4




  1. Comte felt that science could also be used to study the social world.



  1. 1 b) 2 c)3 d) 4




  1. The diversity of their trainings is reflected in the topics they researched, including religion, education, economics, psychology, ethics, philosophy, and theology.


  1. 1 b) 2 c)3 d) 4




  1. Choose the right answer to the following question:



Who was the father of sociology?

  1. K. Marx

  2. M. Weber

  3. E. Durkheim

  4. A. Comte



  1. Define the main idea of the text:





  1. Comte saw history as divided into three intellectual stages.

  2. During Comte’s lifetime, scientists were learning more about the laws that govern the physical world.

  3. The term «sociology» was coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte who is known as the “Father of Sociology“.

  4. Additionally, the growth of cities and religious transformations were causing many changes in people’s lives.
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